V Notes          

    During the excavation of the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Trezora-Amenophis, who lived around 2575 BC, was found by a vessel with of papyrus, on which were seal impressions, made by the blue and red colors, and showing that the papyri with messages passed "mail" pharaoh. Each "letter" it was invested of cylinder of copper with a sealed lid. Archaeologists have found 186 such letters. Perhaps the Pharaoh and was one of the first collectors, so how in the tomb of his "collection" placed next to the most from valuable treasures. Since 1919, a collection of ancient Egyptian pharaoh stored in the British Museum in London.
In the 50 years of the 19th century English teacher reformer Rowland Hill (1795 - 1879) proposed to introduce a tariff for all the mail messages in Great Britain, regardless of distance, to be charged from postage letters weighing up to half ounce by 1 penny prepaid using postage stamps.
    10 January 1840 yeas was established a common penny-mail from a postal rate of 1 penny per letter and pre-paid two penny assembly from the recipient.     6 May 1840 "Penny Black" was the first, that go into circulation postage stamp in the world. 8 May was released and "Blue twopenny"
    20 October 1857 Alexander II approved the three two-color sample printed stamps in denominations of 10, 20 and 30 kopecks. Figure stamps rectangular (the original version was round) shapes created senior engraver Expedition of State Paper F.M. Kepler.     The first stamp in the Russian Empire was introduced into circulation circular the Postal Department of the Russian Empire from 10 (22) December 1857.   In the same month stamps are on sale and have been applied in some provinces. Russian first postage stamp was printed on white paper, hand-made rigid with a watermark in the form of the number "1" in height 15 mm.   So how perforating machine, ordered by Vienna Court Printing house received only 19 of November of whack, it was decided to transfer to the Postal Department and delivery in the provinces part 10-penny stamp unperforated.   Such were produced 3 million pieces.     Official general use marks on the territory of Russia (except the Caucasus, Transcaucasia and Siberia) began January 1 January 1858.
    The first series of 17 commemorative stamps released in 1913 in honor of the tercentenary of the Romanov dynasty.
    In 1904 and 1914 in Russia came the first postal charity stamps with an additional fee for the benefit of the orphans of soldiers of the army.
    In 1916, for the first time in Russia was overprinted new face value on the stamp.
    In 1915 - 1917 years in circulation 11 stamps on very thick paper, without glue, with overprint on the back side "has application on par with a token coin". These stamps were used as the money to pay for mail correspondence.
   The first Soviet postage stamp was released on November 7 (October 25) in 1918. With the advent of this series it connected many legends. On one of them, were stamps prepared to release in handling by the Provisional Government. And in February, possibly in January 1918, printed in small batches and stamps began to enter into circulation.   Secondary stamps were approved 22 May 1918 the new Commissar of Posts and Telegraphs V.N. Podbelsky.   However, the stamps went into circulation only on October 25 ( 7 November) 1918 just in time for the first anniversary of the October Revolution.   Big application of these stamps was not, so slaked specimens, especially in the letters are much rarer, than clean.   8 April 1922 stamps were withdrawn from circulation, but in some areas they were used the before end 1922 year.
  10 January 1992 came into circulation a series of three of the first stamps of the Russian Federation.   The issue was dedicated to the XVI Olympic Winter Games in Albertville.   In miniatures artist Yuri Artsimenev portrayed kinds of sports: Nordic combined, freestyle skiing, bobsleigh.       in the Table of Contents
    According to various philatelic sources worldwide from 1840 to 1850 it produced a total of 44 stamps in 11 countries. Ponder this figure: 10 years produced a total of 44 brand - it is a little more than 1 brand in the quarter. Now we can understand the first collectors who have successfully collected "whole world". Look at the issue of stamps farther. One of the first catalogs, published in 1861, listed in 1080 marks. By the end of the XIX century was there more than 15 thousand marks. Quite a lot, but was still possible collect the whole world. Which and makes many wealthy philatelists. It should be noted that until 1871, when in Peru released was a first memorial (commemorative) stamp dedicated to the 20th anniversary of the opening of the railway line Lima - Callao, plot stamps was pretty simple. The stamps depicting a portrait the head of state, a nominal figure, an allegorical figure. Commemorative stamp dramatically changed the situation. So how anniversaries in the world a lot, so and the number of stamps beginning to rise sharply. Commemorative stamps have been much more attractive, than traditional stamps, so the ranks of stamp collectors have also started to grow rapidly. The result was the effect of "snowball". In 1921 stamps were already more than 50 thousand, in 1940 more than 80 thousand, in 1970 more than 200 thousand, currently released already is not less than 400 thousands of marks. Moreover, the annual growth rate of postage stamps is more than 10 thousand in year.      
in the Table of Contents
    31-year-old local jeweler, watchmaker and engraver Joseph Barnard, a Frenchman by birth (according to other data jew out British Portsmouth ) erred in cliches, with which were printed the first postage stamps of this island, inscriptions postage chargeable" he engraved "post office").
   Today, these stamps are known as the "Blue Mauritius" and "Pink (or" Orange") Mauritius", each edition was only 500 (on other data 1500) copies. After detecting an error, mail Mauritius printed immediately second, revised edition. To date, only 29 managed to find copies with the inscription post office. One such quicklime twopenny stamps acquired in 1904 at an auction the Prince of Wales, the future King George V behind 1450 pounds. In 1963, an envelope with two "Mauritius", accidentally was purchased in 1897 on the Indian market, has been sold for 78,400 US dollars. Printing plates, from which Barnard printed the famous stamps in 1912 after the death of the governor Mauritius was immediately purchased from his heirs englishman Lassie Stokenom. In spite of the active opposition of the colonial department of the UK, it has remained in private hands, repeatedly resold and periodically exhibited at trade shows, in particular, in 1930 at the Berlin Iposta. Today the price of each of the "Mauritius" in the catalog "Michel" 15 million dollars.     http://ru.wikipedia.org      
in the Table of Contents
   In February 1856 the postmaster of British Guiana in Demerara (now Georgetown) E.D. White noted, that stamps, brought from England, coming to an end. Despite the warning about it postal authorities in London and order a new batch of stamps, desirable cargo not came. E.D. White received
permission to print a small number of its own stamps. Of course, it was provizor who after admission stamps from England had to be withdrawn from circulation. In accordance with the existing tariffs were issued two stamps imperforated 1-cent dark blue to pay for delivery of printed materials and 4-cent carmine color for letters. Copies of both stamps is unknown. Apparently, it was very small.
    In typography "Baum and Dallas," which published the official purposes leaf "Official Gazette", was found ready cliches, depicting a sailing ship, to which in frame has been added to the inscription: "British Guiana", "on the sides", respectively, "Postage one cent" ("Postal collecting one cent") or "Four cents". In addition, on stamps was a Latin text: "Damus Petimus Quo Vicissim". Then, on stamps Postmaster ink put down their initials E.D.U. As you can see, the entire "production process" had a very primitive nature.
    How are among the 1-cent stamps was the stamp, printed on carmine background, it remained unclear. But we know the story of her unusual "discovery." In 1873, thirteen year Vernon Vaughan found the stamp in the family archive among a lot of envelopes (including with marks of British Guiana). Together with other stamps he unstick 1-cent carmine stamp on the envelope and placed in an album. To buy some exotic stamps, he from difficult to sell this spoiled stamp known philatelist Mr. Neil R. Makkinnon behind 6 shillings. After a while Makkinnon handed his collection for sale friend philatelist from Glasgow. Collection bought for 120 pounds Thomas Ridies (Rndpes?), The owner of philatelic store in Liverpool. And then it began! Showered with articles about the unknown until the time stamps of British Guiana, and began a feverish search for philatelists. Unfortunately, they were unsuccessful.   1-cent stamp was the only in the world. In 1878, the stamps acquired from Ridiesa 150 pounds Ferrari.
    In 1924, at the Paris auction trademark Ferrari collection was sold for 36 thousand dollars. In 1924, at the Paris auction trademark Ferrari collection was sold for 36 thousand dollars. Bought her The american millionaire from Utica - Arthur Hind. After the death of the owner of the famous mark inherited his wife, who in 1940 sold the stamp to an unknown person for 40 thousand dollars.erican millionaire from Utica - Arthur Hind. After the death of the owner of the famous mark inherited his wife, who in 1940 sold the stamp to an unknown person for 40 thousand dollars.
    In 1970, the legendary brand almost returned to England. On March 24 philatelic auction in New York, she was put under the hammer at auction. Among the many "applicants" were and the British Museum, in which a rich collection of more than 4 million. stamps, lacking only the stamps of the former British colony. It was sold for the incredible sum - 280 thousand dollars! However, the British Treasury could not pay that amount because of the slowness of its postal administration. Mark bought the American Irwin Weinberg, acting on behalf of eight businessmen from Pennsylvania. The auction lasted only one minute. A few days after that the American press reported the name of the former owner of the stamp: it was a permanent resident of the United States Australian Frederick T. Small.
Read more on the website http://www.colonies.ru       in the Table of Contents
   In Kievan Rus in the X century there was a rule "tinker" - the duty the population provide the of horses "from the mill to the mill" for the princely messengers servants. In the XIII century appeared the first postal station, and already in the XV-XVI centuries postal service was established across the country. The distance between the stations is 40-100 verst (1 verst = 1066,8 m). For peasants and townspeople existed tractive a duty bring couriers and messengers.
    When Ivan III Yamskaya shipping mail was under the personal supervision of Prince of Moscow who signed letters ratification on the right to use means of communication. In Podorojniy has been registered direction, the number of cart, horses and feed them. For example, for a trip on the breech Boyar need from Moscow to Novgorod boyar in every yard he is given "13 carts, lamb carcass, three loaves and chicken."
    The XVI century Austrian diplomat Herberstein wrote about russian Yamskoy service: "Great Sovereign, Prince of Moscow, has many places of his principality coachmen with plenty of horses, so that wherever the prince sent his messenger, for him there always prepared the horses. The messenger has the right to choose the horse, which he seems better. Each "pit" horses changed and in latest was no shortage. Who demanded 10 or 12, lead 40 or 50. Tired thrown on the road, and is replaced by another, which was taken in the first village."
    Regal letters, orders, and sometimes private letters were transported from one place to the other runners - assigned. They entrusted delivery usually one diploma or one letter. Coachmen transported how letters, so luggage and people.
    At the beginning of the XVII century, under Boris Godunov for the oversight of coachmen and delivery of government securities was established Yamskaya order. At that time, almost under favorable conditions it delivery was from Moscow to the Swedish border in three weeks, but in the spring thaw it took much more time.
    In 1666 under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich on the initiative of boyar Athanasius Lavrent'evich Ordin-Nasch?kina it was organized regular mail. Her unit was tasked with tsar rich dutch merchant Ivan fon Sveden, the owner of a cloth factory in Moscow. Two years later, a post case was taken over by another foreigner - Leonty Marselis. Mail connects Moscow at first Vilna (in Smolensk), later Novgorod, Pskov, Riga and Arkhangelsk. Shipments appointed mainly government securities, but is allowed and private correspondence merchants. From Riga every two weeks arrive in Moscow foreign newspapers. The fee for mail forwarding is two to three altyn "with each spool gramotki" (that is, one letter), depending on the distance. Coachmen steel used as a postman.     From the site http://provizorii.ru/index.php/      
in the Table of Contents
With the opening in the Russian zemstvos in the sixties of the 19th century there was a need, in addition to the development of state-monopoly postal services within the counties. Some zemstvo boards began to organize their mail department, and, along with free shipment, to arrange to use its stamps.
Zemstvo stamp first appeared in Shlisselburskom district of St. Petersburg gubernia. From 1865 to 1890 there were 30 such counties (53 options of stamps). After official approval in 1871 of the 359 the counties in 1880 Zemstvo mail existed in 129 the counties, and by 1901 - to 243. A with 1910 - 1917 was the 48 counties with their own stamps.
    Along with simple drawings were commemorative editions. So Poltava the county Poltava gubernia released in 1809 (with reprint price in 1810-12), a series of 7 commemorative stamps with the portrait of Peter 1 and monuments in honor of the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Poltava. Krasninskoe district of Smolensk gubernia released 2 marks the 100th anniversary Patriotic War of 1812, where depicted reproduction (probably the only ones in the county mail) paintings P.Gessa, depicting scenes of heroic battles against the French at the by Krasnym Smolensk province - feats D.P.Neverovskogo 2 August and M.A.Miloradovicha 5 November 1812.      
in the Table of Contents
At the beginning of the First World War in Russia sharply reduced the number circulation metallic money, including silver and copper coins. In this connection in 1915,
commissioned by the Ministry of Finance began production of the so-called money-stamps in denominations of 10, 15 and 20 kopecks. For their publication used clichs of postage stamps of Russia, issued on the 300th anniversary of the Romanov reign house. On the back of the postage stamps of money under the tsarist coat of arms was placed explanatory text: "Has walking on a par with a token coin". The reverse side of stamps glue not covered. The edition was carried out on thick paper. In the same year was prepared a new series of money-stamps in denominations of 1, 2 and 3 pennies with the text on the back: "Has walking on a par with a copper coin."
    After the February Revolution of 1917, the release of the stamps-money continued. Now on them doing overprint on the front side. In the latest issue of money-stamps on the back side instead Emblem began to print nominal stamps. Stamps-money used to pay for the postal tariffs and the in some countries, seceded from Russia after the October Revolution.       information from the site - http://post-marka.ru       in the Table of Contents
        SHOW "T" IN OREL
    From 26 May to 7 June 1873 in the building of a girls' school in Oryol was an exhibition of works by artists of "the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions" ("") within the limits 2 (from 48) of traveling exhibition.   Second exhibition was opened in the building of the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts, and was held, except the Eagle, in St. Petersburg 26.12.72-15.02.73, 21.03.-15.04.73, Vilna 27.04.-15.05.73, Kharkov 14.06.-15.07.73, Odessa 4.08.-17.09.73,
Chisinau 30.09.-21.10.73 and Kiev 11.11.-6.01.74.   The second exhibition was visited by a total of 22 196 people, including Orel - 919.
    Exhibited 62 paintings (for the sum 38 430 rub.), Including "Christ in the Desert" I.N.Kramskoy, "On an arable land" M.K.Klodta portraits of I.S.Turgenev (1872 SRM) V.I.Dal and F.M.Dostoyevsky,written by V.G.Perov.
    Organizer of the exhibition in Orel was Alexander D. Chirkin (? - 1897), a native of county Maloarhangelskom (manor Teterie), a former artillery officer, participant of the Crimean war, artist - self-taught and a great lover of horses (he portrayed them in his paintings and had a stud farm). Since 1872 (2 exhibition) to 1881 (8 exhibition) perform duties authorized of the Association for the organization and support of exhibitions in the province. From 1876 to 1882 he participated in exhibitions of the Association. Had the in Moscow collection of paintings, donated him members Association, which after his death was burned peasants in 1919 along with relative of Natalya Lilienfeld in the manor Kritovo Maloarhangelskom county (now the Pokrovsky district).       in the Table of Contents
        OREL LITERATURE 2006
    In the town, in the hall of the post office thanks to the efforts postal workers and themselves philatelists with 16 to 28 February was held All-Russian philatelic exhibition "Literary Eagle-2006".   In 2006, the city celebrated its 440 years of Eagle and 55 years post office building Orlovsky.   At the opening was of the solemn presentation of the artistic envelope and postal card, dedicated to
the exhibition and the 175th anniversary of N.S. Leskov with quenching them with special stamp. The exhibition was attended by collectors from almost two dozen Russian regions. The youngest participant orlovtsev Ivan Fomin (lyceum 18) - ten years, Maria Sergeevna Kruger from Barrow - 94 years.
    Of the 6 members of the jury FIP living in Russia, three of A.A. Borodin, A.S. Ilyushin and V.N. Klochko were officiating in Orel.
    25 exhibits (from 77 awards) were presented orlovtsami. They 12 got diplomas in the rank of medals from 64 , including 3 Gold (A.Y. Saran).   in the Table of Contents
        OREL POSTAL 2007
    From February 28 to March 28, 2007 in the operating room of the orlowski post office was held Interregional philatelic exhibition, dedicated to the 225th anniversary of the establishment of a regular mail in the Orel region.   The exhibition was attended by 25 people with 37 exhibits in seven exhibition class from the city Orel, Kursk, Smolensk, Kostroma and Irkutsk.
    The youngest participant of Ivan Fomin from Orel presented the exhibit "Painting around the world". To the exhibition was produced an envelope and a chest icon, produced quenching special commemorative stamp, dedicated to the exhibition.      
in the Table of Contents
    With the help of a magnifying glass on the mark (with a reproduction of the painting cosmonaut A.A.Leonova "Selenodezisty" from the album "Space far") to the light you can read " (on the moon)   (the Earth rises) ".
    Out of lunar horizon looks half the globe, and cosmonauts salute the waving their distant mother Earth. The one who struck out the words "Sunrise Earth" (they "scored" after manufacturing brands), guided by the firm conviction that the Moon facing the Earth on one side. But is he right? The fact that the moon facing us is not strictly one side and slightly rocking in two planes, these are called librations swinging. By longitude moon rotates uniformly, and around the Earth by ellipse, latitude libration due to the fact that the plane of Earth's orbit and the moon are not the same. As a result of can be seen from Earth 60% of the lunar surface, and only 40% is invisible. Therefore astronauts, being on the Moon will not be able to watch Earth rise 40% of the surface Moon, because she is constantly above the horizon, and with 40% of Earth's moon is not visible at all. Themselves sunrises Earth occur by a difficult path, depending from the place of observation (of course, being 20% being on the Moon) lasting 27 days + 5-13 hours. (Details sunrises with calculations described in the book P.V.Makovetskogo "Look at the root of the" Moscow "Science" 1984 year).
    This philatelic dealers uses. So, 2 slaked substandard brands were sold to Internet auction "hammer" for 1060 rubles. 16.10.2009 and 1025 rubles. 26.10.2009. Information about the reconstructed, released in the sale of the original without zabivki, nobody has seen. from the site www.fandom.ru.     in the Table of Contents
    Inverted on 180 degrees (usually with mirror mapping) images on the stamps are quite frequent phenomena associated with errors the manufacture of molds
directly print not a single color stamps, and sometimes - according to the plan or an error drawing creator of the stamp. On "mass shaft" such products have little attention. Per rare specimens with errors are talking a real hunt.
For example, "Inverted Jenny" released in the US in 1918 was bought for $ 3.2 million.     Reach and simple and well-known artists, or rather, reproductions of their works. One of example - 2 stams with
reproduction of painting "The pickers ears of corn" Zh.F.Mille and "The Last Supper" by El Greco from eight stamps series of Liberia in 1967. Yes what Liberia, France issued a stamp with an inverted reproduction Zh.B.S.Shardena "Lady, sealing the letter" (by the way,
a woman on the Internet at different prices and in different sizes and seals, and sealing, and reads, and gets the letter), a Spain - "Donna Isabella de Porsel" Francisco Goya. A in 1982 year "the process has been raised" UN on international heights.  
  in the Table of Contents
    Stamps of virtual States or "postal ghosts" - the stamps of non-existent, virtual states, as well as microstates, which are issued for propaganda for speculative purposes. According to estimates of experts, the total amount of such editions in the world at least 80 million, and it continues to increase.     Including:
    Buiten-Baldonie. In 1968, some R.M. Arundel declared its independence on private island Auger-island Balde-Tasket, located southwest of the peninsula of Nova Scotia (Canada). This event marks he release stamps.
    Waykoa.     Republic Islands Waykoa. Fantastic state, which was allegedly to on Kermadec Island. In 1969 released "stamps" with the inscription "Waikoa Island". According to legend, as a result of the "disintegration" "Republic Waykoa" appeared two new stamps "State": Republic Minaue. "Stamps" this "state" released with 1979 year. Republic Takava'u". "Stamps" released with 1981 year.
    Gay and Lesbian Kingdom. Republic Korterra (Corterra, abbreviated from Corall Terra) - private ownership of one of the coral reefs in the southern part of the island Lain. Owner announced the "independence" newly founded "republic" in April 1974 and has got its own stamps.
    Lukoni Republic of Lukonia. In 1974 he was proclaimed "independent republic" Lukoni. Is it supposedly, on several islands to the north of Borneo. The proclamation of "independence" was announced in Munich, and the first 4-stamps series Lukoni was printed in Austria.
    Republic of Mevu. Data on the place of release of these "stamps" no. As if this "republic" somewhere Oceania. At the last edition appeared designation "Antarctic Post" - "Antarctic-mail."
    "Stamps" Nagaland.     Main article: Nagaland - state of India, located in north-eastern countries. In the spring of 1969 in many European philatelic magazines were published ads "Nagaland Philatelic Agency", and reproductions of the first brands of Nagaland. According to the companies offering "stamps" of Nagaland, the population of the country led the fight against government of India for full independence. A stamps must to demonstrate the independence of Nagaland from India. Stamps were issued not only for ordinary correspondence, but for air mail. However, their place of birth was London,
and the publisher - a group of swindlers posing as "Government" Nagaland. In January 1970, the Union of philatelic traders and British Philatelic Society announced in the pages of "Collecting stamps" that the "stamps"of Nagaland are just propaganda stickers, so all trading firms to warn consumers about the nature of the stamps. However, this message is explained until the end of the speculative swindles without specifying even creature propaganda .That fact, that the promotional stickers issued by certain socio-political movements reflect the goals that they pursue. "Stamps" Nagaland is produced exclusively popular among philatelists theme of flora and fauna, and it is indicative of their speculative nature. Soon, due to the protest of the Indian Embassy in Germany, whose territory spread particularly active "stamps" Nagaland, their history and their creator, pseudo premiere government of Nagaland unspecified A. Fizeau finished in 1970 in a London court.
    Oman. (One of the "sand dunes" (Stamp)
The government of Oman ( State of Oman , Oman Imamate State). Since 1967, mainly in Lebanon, out stamps similarity-vignettes with the words "State of Oman", "Oman Imamate State" and others. They - reproductions of paintings, birds, animals, flowers and so on. Small circulation printed and blocks (with teeth and without teeth). These "products" available on the letters,
supposedly the passed mail. All this fantastically speculative released were without knowledge the Sultanate of Oman. Postage stamps Sultanate of Oman issued since 1966. Until 1971 country's name on stamps was Muscat and Oman. In 1971 he came out with a new brand name - Sultanate of Oman.     Complete and detailed websites     www.filatelist.biz, stamps.ucoz.com.    
in the Table of Contents
    The full title of the Order: Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta.
    In the middle of VII century the Arabs took over the shrine of Christianity - Jerusalem, but did not impeded Christians - pilgrims wishing to visit the Holy Land. In the city, near the Holy Sepulcher, was set up hospital - a house for pilgrims.
Then appears there is a shelter with the Church of St. John the Baptist, where the monks - benedictines staffed by physicians and nurses. Later they called the loannites or Hospitallers. Since the beginning of the Crusades of St. John Hospital receives first patients wounded knights, who after winning in 1098 the hospital began donating large sums of money.
    In 1113 under the Charter of monastic brotherhood Hospitaller Order became a vow of chastity, poverty and obedience. The main purpose - the care of the sick, the wounded and the poor. Further to the Charter of the Order has been included addition to treatment - the protection of pilgrims. Rectors of the hospital were called masters, and members - the Knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.
    The eight-pointed white cross becomes the emblem of the Order of Malta and the eight symbolizes the virtues of the Order: faith, goodness, truth, justice, sanctity, humility, sincerity, patience. The motto of the Order - "For the faith." He was not replaced already 900 years.
    In 1524 the Spanish King Charles V gives the Order the Maltese Islands per a nominal annual fee.
    Higher height of fame Order reached during the reign of Grand Master Jean Parisot de Valletta (1557-68), in which Malta had to endure the terrible siege of the Turks, and in whose honor was named the capital of Malta.
    In 1792 year was signed a convention with the Order of Malta, on which loannites received the patronage of the Russian court, the russian emperor Paul I was elected (from 1799 to 1801) Grand Master of the Order of Malta, a former Vorontsov Palace was declared a castle of the Knights of Malta, Many nobles become knights of the Order. Came to the throne after Paul, Alexander I decided not quarrel due to Malta with England, that seized the island. From 1814 to 1964 (formally - 1979), the Maltese Islands were a British colony.
    The Order of Malta has observer status at the UN, it maintains diplomatic relations with 104 states, including the Russian Federation. In accordance with data the Order of its members are 13 thousand people. In 1999 marked 900 years of education of the Order of St. John. Currently in the world, including in Russia, there are dozens false Order of Malta.
    Postal Service of the Order was founded May 20, 1966, and November 15 in the sale received the first postage stamps. Regular edition of postage stamps started in 1967. 1 March 1975 Order entered into an agreement with the Government of Malta, in which the two postal services provide mutual delivery and issuance of correspondence between the liaison office at the headquarters of the Order in Rome and Malta. Universal Postal Union, a member of the Sovereign Order of Malta not it is , acknowledged this agreement, as it does not contradict the existing postal regulations. Today, the Order of Malta has concluded similar agreements on postal services to 50 countries in Europe, Africa and America, where the brand recognized by the Order and are in use.
Based on site "Wikipedia" and "FilForum"           in the Table of Contents
    In 1790 Zh.L.Davidu was ordered by monumental canvas 6 x 10 m. with the image of the first performances of the Third Estate against the king at the beginning of the French Revolution, which took place 20 June 1789 year, in Versailles in hall for ball games.
    David accomplished many preparatory sketches portraits. Funding, however, quickly ran out. In process of the radicalization of the revolution, some depicted on canvas deputies were executed, and from of heroes turned into traitors. For these reasons, in 1794, David has stopped work on the main canvas. Based on materials from the site "Wikipedia"
  in the Table of Contents
                  OLD WOMAN, VENUS,             VULCAN
    The researchers found that the picture P.P.Rubensa "The old woman with a roaster," the former long time a mystery to researchers, not independent artistic product of, and a part of the big picture, written around 1616 year on an oak board, from which her sawed off after the death of Rubens. Riddles paintings disclosed the Belgian scholar, researcher Rubens, Max Roozes,
who published their findings in the late 19th century. According to him, Rubens called written by him in 1616 year picture "Venus, seeking refuge in the grotto."
    With this picture, when both sides were together, one of the disciples by Rubens was made a copy, which is located the Mauritshuis Museum in The Hague. At the Museum in Brussels writing a on wood painting by Rubens called "Venus in the Forge of Vulcan." One of the paintings depicts Venus Cupid and the other characters in the same way as in the painting "Venus, seeking refuge in the grotto." But in place of an old woman with a brazier here adds a new part, which depicts the Volcano, fanning the forge fire to warm the chilly Venus.
    Max Roozes proved that portion, which depicts an old woman with a brazier, about 1700 year, sawed off from the paintings Rubens, stored Brussels museum by , and in its place was cleverly written to substitute the same size Vulcan. But the new part was not created by Rubens. He died for six decades before, as a beautiful original corrected Saw.
    Sawed-off part of the picture is preserved for posterity as an independent work entitled "The old woman with a brazier" that is in the Dresden Gallery.     Read more on the website http://ourarts.ru/?p=1642     in the Table of Contents
    The painting was created by Raphael for the altar of the church of the monastery of St. Sixtus Piacenza commissioned by Pope Julius II in the 1512/13 biennium. The painting depicts the Madonna and Child with, left Saint - Pope Sixtus II (resemblance to Pope Julius II, at the feet of his papal tiara - triple crown), on the right Saint Barbara. Holy and Madonna look at the observer (painting was located opposite the picture with the crucifixion of Christ) with facial expressions and postures of figures due to their feelings at the sight of the suffering and death of Christ.
If you look carefully at the picture, you can see - the background, a distance seeming clouds, this heads of angels, St. Sixtus with six fingers (the name comes from the Latin word "six" (by the way, the picture from six figures). There is an assumption that a model for the Madonna served as mistress of Raphael Fornarina, that depicted in several paintings of the artist.         in the Table of Contents
    After the death of Pablo Picasso in 1973, his heirs had to pay as a tax on inherited a very substantial amount. However, in 1968, when France enacted a law under which the heirs to pay taxes could not "live" money, and objects of art, they inherited a legacy. At the disposal of the heirs of Pablo Picasso was a large number
of objects of great artistic value, since, as noted by the artist himself, he is the most important collector of Picasso in the world. This law took advantage of the heirs of Picasso.
    Dominique Bozo, a curator of national museums of France, personally selected the works that were to be the "replacement" of the tax. The final list of works was approved in 1979, and on that basis has been created Picasso Museum in Paris. The special value of this collection is that it contains all the major periods of the artist. After the death of Picasso's second wife, Jacqueline, in 1986, her daughter gave the museum a new "input" in a similar way.     Read more - http://znaeteli.ru/2010/04/nalog-kartinami-pablo-pikasso/#more-1785         in the Table of Contents
    In 1960 year was released in honor of the 150th anniversary of the birth of Polish composer Frederic Chopin stamp with his fragment portrait, his
autograph and fragment musical of etudes for piano in C Minor, opus 10 number 12.   Interesting fate of the original.
  A double portrait of Chopin, on which it played the piano and listen to his French writer George Sand (while his mistress) in 1838 wrote, but did not finish E.Delakrua. It so happened that a double portrait was is cut into three parts and sold. Half depicting with George Sand (oil on canvas 79 x 57) is in the collection Ordrupgaard in Copenhagen. The second the upper part of image with Chopin (oil on canvas 46 x 38), according to his testament, was in 1907 year handed to the Musee du Louvre, Paris.     Details: Yu.M.Klimov "Art on stamps" p.106 Moscow "Radio and Communication" 1984.       websites www.wikipedia.org     www.nastojatelnyjresurs.tk     in the Table of Contents
    Black Square (oil on canvas 79.5 x 79.5 cm) - the most famous work of Kazimir Malevich, created in 1915. It is part of a series of his Suprematist works in which the artist explored the basic features of color and composition. The second version of the painting "Black Square" is included in the triptych, which included also "Black Circle" and "Black Cross".
The work was done in the summer and autumn of 1915 in a few months and exhibited at the Last Futurist Exhibition "0.10", which opened in St. Petersburg 19 december 1915 year. Among the thirty nine paintings Malevich, the most conspicuous place, the so-called "red corner", which usually hang icons, hung "Black Square". Later, Malevich produced several copies of "Black Square" (according to some reports, seven). It is known, that in the period from 1915 to early 1930, Malevich created four versions of "Black Square", which differ in pattern, texture and color. One of the "square", although the author is dated 1913, usually attributed to the turn of 1920-30's. He were also painted "Red Square" (two instance) and "White Square" ("Suprematist Composition" - "White on White") - one.
      The largest that moment art critic, founder of the association "World of Art", Alexander Benois wrote immediately after the show: "Surely, this is the same an icon, which the gentlemen Futurists establish in return of the Madonna." "Left" critic realized "Square" also, but responded to it enthusiastically.
    In a landmark exhibition 2004 in Warsaw Gallery "Zacheta" "Warsaw - Moscow, 1900-2000", "Square" from the Tretyakov Gallery was presented as the main exhibits. He was posted in the "red corner" both at "0.10".
    Now in Russia there are four "black square", in Moscow and St. Petersburg by two "squares": two at the Tretyakov Gallery, one in the Russian Museum and one in the Hermitage. One of the works owned by Russian billionaire Vladimir Potanin, who bought it from Inkombanka in 2002 for US $ 1 million (30 million rubles) and transferred to permanent storage in the Hermitage (the first of the existing variants of the canvas with the image of "Black Square" painted by the founder of Suprematism).
    According to one version, the artist was unable to finish the picture at the right time, so he had to cover with black paint job. Later, after the recognition of the audience, Malevich wrote the new "Black Square" is already on a blank canvas. Attempts to investigate the picture for finding the original versions under the top layer were made repeatedly. However, scientists and critics felt that the masterpiece could be irreparably spoiled.
    "Red Square" (oil on canvas 53 x 53 cm) - painting by Kazimir Malevich, written in 1915. The name on the back side of "The Woman in two dimensions." This is a red square on a white background, somewhat different in form from the square. He was exhibited at an exhibition in 1915 year. In the catalog of the exhibition he received the second name - "Picturesque peasant realism in two dimensions." At the present time it is in the State Russian Museum, Saint - Petersburg.     More about this site www.wikipedia.org.           in the Table of Contents
    On the mystery of the painting "Danae" famous Rembrandt the researchers fought more than three centuries. Only a modern X-ray equipment revealed a complex truth: it turned out, the same picture was written twice! With a gap of ten years for Danae posed two different women - "Light" and "Dark", wife
artist Saskia van Uylenburgh and wet nurse him son Geert Dirks. Marriage with Saskia by Rembrandt, the daughter of a noble citizen, was happy, but not for long. One after another, almost born, have died, three of their children. Fourth, miraculously survived Titus, cost the lives of his mother. Artist dearly loved his young wife, often portraying it in his paintings. Is no exception "Danae", written by Rembrandt is not for sale, and for his house. After the death of the wife, artist was made in a picture of the changes. While he was in intimate relations with Geert Dirks. Facial features Danae in the picture it has been rewritten in a way that will combine two favorite women. In addition, X-rays showed that on the original image was present golden rain, pouring on Danae, and her gaze was directed upward and not sideways. The angel in the headboard was laughing, not a sad face, and the woman's right hand was palm up.
    ...One day life one of Rembrandt's most famous paintings seemed terminates. In 1985 year crazed visitor Hermitage splashed sulfuric acid on her and struck two blows with a knife. The most severely affected are the most important part of the pictures, especially the figure of Danae. As a result complicated restoration. which lasted more than twenty years, the painting was brought back to life.     Information from the site http://bestforum.7bk.ru/viewtopic.php?id=5302           in the Table of Contents
    In the popular mind has long existed a notion of close connection original and him the image. Therefore, in the XIX century Russian artists faced the reluctance and fear on the part of ordinary people to write their portraits. It was believed that if something happens to the portrait (burst or burn), and the person will suffer: sick or die. The mystical relationship between man and his portrait known since ancient times. One of the first commandments of God to the Jews, transmitted through Moses: "Thou shalt not make ... any likeness of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters under the earth." This prohibition is complied with Jews for centuries, making an exception only for the animals.
    Rembrandt - one of the greatest masters of the brush. He outlived two wives and all children. Saskia is familiar to all of "Flora" and other immortal paintings. She died 8 years after the wedding. Rembrandt painted a lot and children. The three died in infancy.
Fourth, Titus, lived only 27 years. The second wife - Hendrik Stoffelds. A favorite model, embodied in the many paintings of Rembrandt. Too quickly died.
    Approximately the same thing happened to the great Flemish painter Rubens. His constant model was the first wife - the beautiful Isabella. Often he wrote and his daughter. Isabella died before they thirty-five years old daughter died in the age of twelve.
  Rubens mourned their loved ones for a long time, and only many years later, when he was already over fifty, married sixteen year beauty Elena Fourmens also became his artist's model. Soon Elena ...- buried her husband. Modern experts argue that it has a very strong biofield, able to protect her from the "pull" of vital energy out of the picture. His first wife was deprived of this quality, and paid with his life.
    On the loudest Modigliani paintings inspire his schoolgirl Jeanne Ebyuten. Three years later, she jumped out the window and broke.
    The model famous artist Vladimir Borovikovsky Lopuchin died three years after writing the portrait without any reason. The same fate befell the boy Vasya, posed for pictures Perov "Troika". His mother felt this, and forbade his son to pose for the artist.
    And similar examples hundred.And similar examples hundreds. But even the experts, refutes these supposedly legend, admit some mystical mystery still exists. Igor Vagin, a leading expert on Russian thanatology (the study of death),
believes that the portrait - a phantom human bioenergy. Why do people at divorce tear photo partners? Because they want to bring bad luck. A portrait - a powerful structure. The mechanism of action, according to Vagin, simple. On exhibitions of famous artists go the masses of people. At talented artists there is fellow detractors. On the whom transferred all the envy, hatred, dark energy? Of course, at the portraits of loved ones, in which the artist put his love. And the more talented make a portrait, a fortiori original vulnerable. Someone from the audience just jealous of the beauty of these women.
    Many models Artist's Serov died shortly after posing sessions. The most mysterious was the death of the model depicted in the famous painting "Girl in the Sunlight" (people call it "Girl with Peaches").
    Just per month burned by the sudden onset of tuberculosis favorite Konstantin Somov, she posed for the painting "Woman in Blue". Vrubel painted a portrait of his young son, who was born with a cleft lip (from the last wife - known singer Zabela-Vrubel), the painter portrayed
the his son, not even trying to hide the congenital malformation. After completion a portrait of boy died. Soon, unable to survive the tragedy, and he died Vrubel.
    The calling Delight and admiration is the famous painting of the great Florentine Leonardo da Vinci - "La Gioconda", mixed with riddles and fear. On the famous smile of the Mona Lisa are not going to stop, but the strange (to say awful) the impact the image on the viewer is to talk.
Notice this amazing ability affect the to impressionable people, carrion fainting in the XIX century, when the Louvre was opened to the public. Total so far recorded more than a hundred such cases. The genius of Leonardo? After all, the great artist had so long been working on a conventional portrait. Seemingly, ordinary ordered thing. So no, the artist until his death are not satisfied and will now rewrite the remaining six years of his life. All this time him will haunt the melancholy, weakness, exhaustion. But most importantly, he does not want to part with the "Mona Lisa", will look at it for hours, and then start again with a trembling hand to amend. Employees of the Louvre, by the way noted, that long breaks in the work of the museum lead to tarnishing "Mona Lisa." It is dark, but visitors should be refilled halls of the museum, and the Mona Lisa comes to life, appear rich colors, the background is lightened, smile seen more clearly. Vampire?
    For months agonizing over his painting "Ivan the Terrible kills his son Ivan ..." and the great Ilya Repin. In the early stages of writing
paintings the artist admitted that he cleaned the canvas out of sight. Repin at different times to pose for a few
For Repin at different times posed different sitters. Reached us the sketches head of Tsarevich , in which recognized artist VK Menk and the famous writer Vsevolod Garshin, who soon after posing rushed with flight of stairs and crashed. By the way, portraits surgeon Pirogov and composer Mussorgsky Repin finished the one day before their death. Stolypin was shot dead the next day after has been completed work his portrait. Premature death suffered at least another eight models of the artist.
    Alfred Higgins was 47 years old when he ordered a famous artist painting: he and the wife are standing on the deck of their favorite yachts. The picture has turned a colorful, but soon after finishing work on her Higgins died: from bleeding in the brain. A week later, his wife was hospitalized with a bout of acute psychosis, and soon she also died. As stated after the tragedy, "people in the know," wife Higgins died because of their location on canvas Marc Quinn, the artist, who supposedly sold his soul to the devil - all depicted in his paintings people died shortly after posing. Today, the Queen does not give interviews, does not comment on the tragic fate of their models. But calls regularly wealthy people, whose faces often flash in the gossip columns and on television, and offers to make their portrait. Mortally frightened millionaires. Rumored, hem immediately pay a tidy sum just for the fact that he did not take up the brush...
    It has long been observed that some works of art are endowed with magical powers. The reason is usually that the artist created "nested shutter speed", that at some point may reach a critical level and the "shoot"...
Information from the site www.nearyou.ru           in the Table of Contents
    Pope Leo X at the end of 1514 or early 1515 were ordered perform Raphael tapestries to replace worn for the Sistine Chapel. The drawings were finished at the end of 1516 year. Tapestries were prepared in Brussels in the workshop of tapestry Alesta Peter Yang, the best at the time. The first tapestry was finished in 1517, seven produced in 1519 year.
Three been received before the death of Leo ? in 1521 year. In the list, made after the death of Leo X, was 10 drawings tapestries. In 1527 these drawings were stolen, and the returned to the 1550s. Seven out of ten drawings are in museums in London.
    Rafael fulfilled all that was required to cope with this difficult task, and tapestries were a great success, as was shown in the Sistine Chapel in 1519 year. Rafael turned in the difficult position. Its drawings will be somewhere to be, and wall hangings remain in the chapel, closed curtains that open only on major holidays, and will be compare with frescoes by Michelangelo. Of course, the impression of the ceiling was incomparably greater.                 Read more on the website http://www.nearyou.ru/rafael/0gobelen.html         in the Table of Contents
    In the center of the fresco "The Last Judgment" in the Sistine Chapel depicts Saint Bartholomew, who is holding a flayed human skin. There is a hypothesis that Michelangelo painted the time of the Last Judgment, when Christ decides the fate of the artist.
    This hypothesis has three indirect argument. First, a distant resemblance leather and portraits Michelangelo's of works brush Giuliano Bugardini and Daniele da Volterra. Second, it has centered in Christ, sight which directed precisely on the image Michelangelo.
Thirdly, shows Last Judgment - there is a general resurrection, of the soul acquire a all have acquired the flesh, the judgment of God. But the fresco all has already acquired the flesh, except the skin in the hands of St. Bartholomew.
    Pay special attention to St. Bartholomew. In the Christian tradition he in life, and after death has been associated with the wonders change the mass. A well-known legend about him says that when his body was thrown into the sea, it was rendered on the shore. The local bishop ordered the men to bring the body. But it was too heavy. And then the bishop commanded to bring the body of the children that are easily coped with the task. That sinless children could raise body symbolizes that the true severity - from sins. In addition, the posture of St. Bartholomew is rather unusual. If we turn our attention to his torso and arms, we see that it is similar to the scales.       Information from the site http://burrru.livejournal.com       in the Table of Contents
    This sacred christian relic the first time appeared to people in the middle of the XIV century, not far from Paris, the castle Leary. Knight de Charny introduced her to the audience, solemnly proclaiming, that before them - Shroud (an ancient piece of cloth measuring 4.1 by 1.1 meters, on which are clearly with distinguishable prints face with a beard and with bloodstains body), in which was wrapped the body at burial Christ's.
  Since then, around the relic being a fierce debate, and nobody can deny how, and to prove its authenticity. Now the shroud is kept in the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist in Turin, in a special ark. Only once in 50 years the Vatican opens the ark, and you can see the shrine. Repeated surveys have confirmed authenticity of the Shroud (including the fact that the human body is transformed into the plasma)
    Scientists in 1988 year achieved have permission to complex examination. It was attended by up to fifty scientists from all over the world, who brought 72 box of equipment. & nbsp; The findings radiocarbon research stunned all the scientists - the Shroud was made in XIV century our era. Skeptics have triumphed, because they claimed, that the shroud painted by Leonardo da Vinci on the request of the church (in those days he experimented with colors and light). & nbsp; In 1989, the examination was conducted in 38 laboratories around the world - to get variation in the age of the samples - up to 250 years! Some scientists believe that the error is possible in the 1,000 years, since the samples were taken from the edges of the shroud, which was "soiled" for centuries by the events that she could be "contaminated" younger carbon, for example, fires in 1201, 1349, 1532 years. The relic was severely damaged by fire in the cathedral French city Shamberi, in which it was long in conditions smokiness, but miraculously survived.     Read more on the website http://repin.info/       in the Table of Contents
    Panorama "Borodino Battle" was created for the year FA Roubaud in the studio near Munich and open 08.29.1912 years in a temporary wooden pavilion on Clean Ponds in Moscow. In 1918 year pavilion became unusable and the canvas was withdrawn. Because of poor storage he was badly damaged. After restoration
(1948-62) Panorama was opened 10.18.1962 year in the building on Kutuzovsky Prospekt, built (1948-62) on the site of the village of Fili, where Kutuzov decided to leave Moscow without a fight.         in the Table of Contents
    In 1973, in the series "Soviet painting" the stamp appeared with reproduction of painting AA Plastov "Dinner of tractor driver" ( 4261). According to the catalog, the original painting is in the State Tretyakov Gallery. The same pattern is exhibited in the Irkutsk Art Museum.
    What was the basis of to a postage stamp? The original or a copy? After exhibiting at the All-Union Exhibition in Moscow in 1952, more than three years she was transmitted in the exposition of the Irkutsk regional art museum.
    At the beginning of 1956 the picture was brought to Moscow for display at the exhibition, and in the autumn of the same year "Dinner of tractor driver" has exhibited at the Venice International AV. After Venice, the picture began to travel on exhibitions in Brussels and London, New York and Latin America. After exhibitions the canvas was restored in Moscow and left in exposure THG. At the request of the directorate the irkutsk art museum and irkutsk public picture now returned in Irkutsk. A Tretyakov Gallery ordered AA Plastov make a copy of this picture. Hence, a reproduction of the brand are not with original, and with the copy author's.
Read more on the website http://www.stampsportal.ru/topic-philately/art/izo/paint/2735-kf-1978-plastov         in the Table of Contents
    26 december 2013 year F. Rafael (30 year-old resident of the city of Kant, temporarily not working mason (previously not convicted) in evening went to the museum, paid 40 soms per input. After went up to the second floor for view halls.
On the second floor there was no anybody, in connection with which, Rafael F. originated criminal intent. Lacking information about the value of the paintings, he removed the first comer in his field of vision, landscape, knife cut the canvas, hid in the folds of clothes and went home. Later, after learning about the value of the painting (approximately $ 40 000),gave to picture in the editorial staff of one of the metropolitan newspapers and 31 January, a month after the kidnapping of the picture "Sea landscape in Crimea" I.K. Aivazovsky, appeared in the criminal police department of Bishkek to confess. By the way, 27 december on the 1st floor was to have a party, discovered the loss of picture 28 december.     Information from the site http://tjnews.ru/?p=18688         in the Table of Contents
    In 2001, the employees of the Jewish Museum in New York City with horror discovered the loss of the sketch (20 x 25) to the picture "Above Vitebsk" Marc Chagall, valued at one million dollars, sent him to exhibition the russian collector. Museum workers have announced a reward of 25 thousand dollars for information about the disappearance.
    After that, the FBI which is deals investigating and Museum in the Upper East Side began to receive messages, such - that sent FBI agents to distant Switzerland, or the picture will not be returned as long as not peace is established in the Middle East. In FBI was not to much hope for a speedy return of a masterpiece. The sketch "Above Vitebsk" was only one of two hundred and fifty the wanted works by Chagall, only in the lists "Art Loss Register" are 355 works by Picasso, 270 - Mir, 175 - Dali, 125 - Rembrandt and 115 - Renoir, whose whereabouts are still unknown.
    But seven months later, the picture is quite accidentally was discovered in Kansas. The employees of the post office of the city of Topeka opened unclaimed parcel (address of the recipient was absent), and saw the on the other side of the canvas mark numerous museums, immediately called the FBI. When the authenticity of the painting has been confirmed, she returned to St. Petersburg, in Russian Museum.
Read more on the website http://www.ufamama.ru         in the Table of Contents
  Panorama "Sturm Perekopa", devoted to Perekop-Chongarsky operation of the Southern Front of the Red Army under the command M.V.Frunze, the biggest art project in Soviet Russia until 1941.
    The decision to create the panorama was accepted in 1934.
Panorama was created in 1934 - 1940 years a team of artists led by Grekov, after his death (11.26.1934) led by G.K. Savitsky. The work involved M.I.Avilov, D.F.Bek, G.N.Gorelov, P.S.Dobrynin, V.P.Efanov, P.I.Kotov, N.G.Kotov-Pamirs, P.P.Sokolov-Scalja, N.B.Terpsikhorov, V.V.Meshkov and others (composition of the team has constantly changing). For the successful implementation of artistic design in November 1935 has been specially reconstructed the events taking assault Perekopa in 1920 with the participation of infantry and cavalry, which creates an opportunity to sketch virtually "from life". Central panoramic painting spherical shape had 30-meter length. The total area the panoramic canvas - 130 x 18 m. Panorama "Sturm Perekopa" it was decided to put in Simferopol the Art Gallery. The opening took place 06.12.1940 year .
    In Great Patriotic War during the evacuation of 27 October 1941 the ship with museum collections the art gallery of Simferopol sunk during the Nazi air raids (according to other sources - the exhibits burned on in warehouses in the port of Kerch). Part of the preparatory original works, made while working for the panorama (sketches, drawings) was saved. They are in the National Museum of heroic defense and liberation of Sevastopol.
Read more on the website http://library.kiwix.org/wikipedia_ru_all/  
      in the Table of Contents
    On the 250th anniversary of the birth of Alexander Shishkov was released envelope. The stamp: portrait of Admiral Shishkov (fragment the unfinished portrait by George Dawe from the State Hermitage) and book cover Maritime dictionary, compiled them.
    On the envelope: the St. Petersburg meeting of the literary society "Lovers of the Russian Word" (existed in 1811-1816). Among the images: the left 2 - P.A. Vyazemsky portrait of O.A. Kiprensky, 3 left - A.S.Shishkov the picture of O.A. Kiprensky (changed color headbands from red to blue?), one on the right - the portrait A.A.Delvig the portrait Langer V.P., 4 on the right - the portrait of Zhukovsky work O.A. Kiprensky. Artist envelope makes a blunder: Vyazemsky, Zhukovsky, Karamzin and Delvig not only have never been members of the literary society "Lovers of the Russian Word", but was his ideological opponents.       in the Table of Contents
    16 January 1969 year the cosmonauts E.Hrunov A.Eliseev moved from spacecraft "Soyuz-5" in the "Soyuz-4" and delivered cosmonaut V.Shatalovu newspapers, letters from home, and a letter from the command with special postmark (January 14 - the day of the launch "Soyuz-5") and address: Shatalov Soyuz-4 and the return address: Earth spaceport N.Kamanin).
The first cosmic-mail is stored in the Museum of Star City.
    In January 1978 "Union-27" to "Salyut-6" was delivered onboard the special stamp with the image of the station in flight against a background of stars and text, "Board the orbital station Salyut-6. Space mail". Freelance chief the world's first Space Post Office (open USSR Ministry of Communications) at the station was appointed cosmonaut G.M.Grechko, a member of the RSP with 1971 year.     in the Table of Contents
        A BETTER ... DEER
    Pages of old printed books "squeezed" with wooden planks on which the master cut out relief images of drawings, letters forming the text. Later, with the submission of the German Johann Gutenberg, in the arsenal of polygraphists appeared alphabetic letters, cast from lead alloy. The text is typed out such letters, and then print it could spill and use initials for the next job. In 1869, the nobleman Peter, the Princess was officially granted the privilege to developed their "machine for a set of typographic fonts," which "gathers, typeset line and parses
    typographical the fonts with the speed and accuracy ... inaccessible to human hands." The author (by the way, not finished teaching student medical faculty) called his machine "machine-typesetter". It was first applied the principle programming: text encoded in a variety of combinations of holes punched on long strips of paper. These tapes are then charged into the automatic dialer, and it is with a special "the electric perceive" reads the information and perform the necessary mechanical action.
    Was made experienced a prototype machine the Knjagininsky, to demon- strate him on the Petersburg Industrial Exhibition in 1870 year. Unfortunately, the mass production of such intelligent machines has not established: It seemed too unusual to contemporaries accept original idea proposed by Russian inventor (not to mention the programming). As a result, of automatic of typesetting machines were used in printing only in the mid-20th century.     From the site http://www.mk.ru/   in the Table of Contents
    German painter G. Buchholts received an order for a portrait of Elizabeth from her successor, Catherine II. In the basis of work he put the composition of a large ceremonial image of Elizabeth, which executed in 1758 year by the French painter Louis Tocque. Portrait was performed immaculately exactly, but with a portrait likeness (Elizabeth Buchholz did not see) is likely to be a problem. At some point it was decided to "mount" the composition of the face of the artist Elizabeth Louis Caravaca, which of repeatedly wrote the image of empress.
A careful consideration of the on oblique light clearly visible square "sewn" canvas.     From the site http://tsarselo.ru/photos/photo23125.html#.VinYuH7hC00  
in the Table of Contents
    In 2006, the casino owner Steve Wynn has agreed to sell a masterpiece of Cubism - Picasso's "Le Reve" (The slumber - shows Picasso's mistress Marie-Therese Walter) Steven Cohen, american billionaire and art collector.   Sam Wynn bought the painting in 1997 at auction Christie per 48.4 million dollars and agreed to sell per 139 million. However, the deal was canceled, as the Wynn, who suffers from eye disease and almost did not see anything, awkwardly he turned and pierced the canvas with his elbow,
calling it "the most awkward and stupid gesture in the world." The guests of the Wynn, observe this, become famous, "gesture" was an American TV host Barbara Walters, screenwriter Nora Ephron and her husband, writer Nick Pileggi, and art collector Serge Sorokko and his wife Tatiana Sorokko.
       Since then, the painting was restored behind 90 000 dollars, and estimated   on 2007 year cost of its $ 85 mln.     in the Table of Contents
    The symbol of the "Nord Stream" was approved the portrait of Catherine I. A few years ago. For this purpose at Sotheby's at germans had bought a portrait of Catherine I the painter Andreas Moeller, that the head of "Gazprom" Alexey Miller proudly showed
president Medvedev. He was later released on a mail block. The portrait was painted in Greifswald - the city of Germany, in which come pipeline "Nord Stream".
    Meanwhile, it appears that originally this picture was are paired. Its second part, the image of Peter I, was considered lost. A recently found ... in Russia. The owner missing portrait of Peter I called Dmitry. Portrait had no idea what what sort of rarity owns. He simply hung on the wall of his house. "I bought it a dozen years ago at my friend - that the money was urgently needed, only he, in turn, purchased portrait Peter in Perm at grandfather, a veteran who had brought her from the war as a trophy. On the back side there was a sign Blankenburgskogo castle, where they were made, these two canvases... ". In Saxony-Anhalt the castle Blankenburg court painter Andreas Moeller wrote the first portrait of Martha-Catherine, wherein the in Blankenburg Peter I posed Andreas Moeller not long. But at the end of the same 1712 year, in Berlin, Andreas Moeller (1684 - 1762) still finished his portrait. The inscription on the back of the picture says that the painting was completed in January 1713 year. Since then, the two paintings - husband and wife - were hung side by side in the castle. The current owner is a portrait of Peter the Great, whose authenticity was confirmed by Act of expertise and research results Research Institute of Restoration in 2006,was has offered to give the Hermitage canvas or make, for example, present prime minister of Russia.     Details - on site www.mk.ru
    PS.   18.10.12   The site office Auction House "Res Raritas": on the hammer (lot ?101) offered a picture of Peter I (see above) A.Mellera works (oil on canvas 59 x 54.4 cm) for 5.1 million rubles ...     Au...u! ..., Dmitry!     in the Table of Contents
    Parade of Planets in 2012 could be the end of the world. The greatest invention of the Mayan was the calendar. The Mayan calendar, despite its antiquity, amazingly accurate. According to current estimates, the length of the solar year of 365.2422 days. Maya calculated the value in 365.2420 days. The difference - just two decimal.
    Mayan priests say that since the creation of human race has passed for four cycles, or "Sun". According to Mayan legend,
each cycle ends almost complete destruction of civilization that lived in this cycle. Replacement of the four races of man, who died during the great cataclysm. And only a few people left alive, telling about what happened.
    "First Sun" lasted 4008 years and was destroyed by earthquakes. "Second Sun" lasted 4010 years and was destroyed by hurricanes. "Third Sun" lasted 4081 years and fell under a rain of fire, which spilled from the huge volcanic crater. "Fourth Sun" (5026 years) destroyed the flood. Now we live in the last Katun fifth era of the Creation, or "Fifth Sun". It is known also as the "Sun Movement". Maya believed that at the end of the current 5126-year cycle will occur a movement of the Earth, which would entail the destruction of our civilization. The most interesting is that on December 21.12.2012 will be the parade of planets. Saturn, Jupiter, Mars and Earth line up in one line. Actually these parades planets were before. What is the difference between a parade of planets December 21, 2012 from the previous ones? The fact is that in this day line up not only the planets, but planets of other star systems, forming a line from the center of the galaxy. And it is quite another matter. The process can be compared with the clock when the clock faces to 12 o'clock. This combination will mean a transition of the universe from one system to another.
    Based on different beliefs and scientific assumptions, to 2020 on Earth at least 12 predicts apocalypse. The impressive list of promises that cataclysms will begin in 2008, and, if lucky, the Earth stretch out before 2020 year.
    2008- - At the Earth falls asteroid with a diameter of more than 800 m.
    2009- - Based on the transcripts of the centuries of Nostradamus Peter Laurie, come Armageddon.
    2010- - Run out of oil, and the world will swallow a war for resources. Another promise that the Earth turns away from the sun. But it will be "temporary" end of the world.
    2011- - The end cycle of the Mayan calendar . Enough common date on which, according to various beliefs, held end of the world. Perhaps an asteroid collision will happen in 2005 YU55.
    2012- - It is also a long-awaited end of the world according to the Mayan calendar. Indigo children advised to prepare, from 0,5% of the population have a chance to survive.
    2013- - Ragnarok, aka Doomsday. Day start and end! Jump Hyper-space into the fourth dimension. For mortals it is death, but for the gods - the birth.
    2014- - Astrophysicists say, that our solar system gets a cloud of space dust, that sweeps away everything in its path. Dull end of the world.
    2015- - the end of the 9576-year cycle, which leads to the death of civilization.
    2016- - James Hansen, a climate researcher condition on Earth, claims, that this year will melt glaciers and most of the land would be flooded.
    2017- - end of the world according to the theory of hierarchical disasters.
    2018- - a nuclear war on the same Nostradamus.
    2019- - banal encounter with asteroid 2002 NT7.
    2020- - Isaac Newton, based on the predictions of St. John the Theologian, has calculated, that the end of the world will be in this year.         http://knowlg.com   in the Table of Contents
    Anyone who has experienced 'council of seven' remained alive after the 'seven circles of Hell', visited by' the seven seas, seven dales' and found himself' in seventh heaven', surely someone wanted to' seven feet under the keel'.   If 'too many cooks spoil the broth', as say, 'seven problems - one answer'.   'One with a plow, seven with - spoon', but to eat - 'seven one are not waiting'.
'Seven courageous',' snow white and the seven dwarfs', 'seven Fridays in the week. Continue? ... Tower of Babel has seven floors, Rome and Moscow on 'seven hills', the Buddha was sitting under a fig tree with seven fruits. To do something 'look before you leap ...' Save valuable 'an enigma'. Seven, albeit mistaken, the primary colors of light (If a hunter for a while forget about the pheasants would be able to just three colors to create any color). The tests 'on the seven seas and seven winds' characterize a man of experience, a 'seven genius' - clever. And all that is around created, created by God behind 'seven days'.
   In the ancient world number seven was revered as sacred. Associated with it an idea of something complete and perfect. Of seven notes composed musical the octave. All supreme synod consisted of seven Babylonian gods, each of which has been determined to one of the celestial bodies - the Sun, the Moon, Venus, Saturn, Mercury, Mars and Jupiter. Even in the underground kingdom of the dead could be reached only breaking the seven gates protected.
    Why seven?!   The average person is able to identify any of the five or six sound level, also, any of the five or six tones, memorize them. But after begins to make mistakes. Approximately five to six different concentrations of flavor. Approximately seven color tones in brightness as and homogeneous objects, and so on and so forth.   This shows the limits of our ability to process information.   We are able to remember five or seven presented to us in the mess of letters, or five to seven nonsense syllables. But, and five to seven unrelated words, but they carry much more information than simple syllables. We are able to remember five or seven pure musical tones. But when they follow one another in harmony, we enjoy the melody and easy to repeat it. Especially when combined with the words of the melody, as it happens, for example, in the song. The imagery, emotional melody or phrase with which we meet, the more the combined attributes and associations awakened in our perception and the deeper their impact.     Read more on site http://www.nearyou.ru       in the Table of Contents
    In 2003, in Ukraine there was an attempt to release a postage stamp ". 1932 - 1933. ' ", (Ukraine. Starvationdie 1932 - 1933. Memory of the victims starvationdie), dedicated memory Victims of Starvationdie 1932-1933 yy. However, for its design somehow
used a photo taken in a village Asekeevo Buguruskansky County Kazan province (now the regional center of the Orenburg region) the autumn of 1921 year (photo was in the newspaper "Izvestia" of July 5.07.1921). There was a lot of noise, but the stamp itself with this plot is not seen in circulation.       in the Table of Contents
    Prophecies visionary 14th century Basil Nemchina:
In the 20th century, when there will be six times for 15 years (since 1990) Rus will rule the demons hiding under other banners, but after a while they will smashed about the bearish head and legs. To power will be a man "Great Potter." He promulgates
the concept of a new state built entirely on independent economy, based solely on the principles of self-sufficient.   Great Potter will come to the top of the Russian government when he will meet personally with the two fives. When "Great Potter" will be joined 15 leaders who will create a new great power. The state of Russia will be recreated in the new boundaries.
    Prediction Paracelsus (1493-1541):
There is one nation that Herodotus called Hyperboreans - the progenitors of all peoples and all terrestrial civilization - arias, which means "noble" and the current name of the indigenous people of this ancient land - Muscovy. Hyperborea in its turbulent history of the future will know much - and the terrible decline of the great variety of all kinds of disasters and powerful great flowering of the great variety of all kinds of goods, which will come at the beginning of the 21st century, ie, before 2040 year.
    The clairvoyant Edgar Cayce (1877-1945) predicted:
"Not have time to finish the 20th century, both in the USSR will come the collapse of communism, but Russia, freed from communism expects no progress, but very difficult crisis, but after 2010 the former Soviet Union will be reborn, but reborn in a new form. That Russia will head rebuild civilization of Earth.
    Clairvoyant Vanga predicted in 1996:
Russia - the progenitor of all Slavic countries, and those that have separated from her, will soon come back to it in a new way. In Russia will return in a new form of socialism. Russia will grow and grow, no one can stop Russia, there is no force that could break Russia. Russia will sweep away everything in its path, and not only continue, but will become the sole undivided "mistress of the world."     Read more on site http://thebester.ru/blog/poznavatelno   in the Table of Contents
    Ranks record holder on the right to be awarded the stamp issued Italian post May 19, 1956 in honor of the 50th anniversary of the opening of the Simplon tunnel. He pierced through
the Alps at an altitude of 700 meters near the Simplon Pass, has a length of 19.7 km and connects the railway Italy and Switzerland. When the stamp saw philatelists, they found in her a "bunch" of errors.
    Start with the fact that the tunnel was intended only for trains on electric traction, but on the stamp of a steam train leaves with the pipe, of which coming out smoke. He pull not some platform with materials and tools to repair the path, but normal passenger and freight cars. The train exits the tunnel from the right track, while the motion here, yes and throughout Italy's, leftparty, as saying the railwaymen, "was put on the wrong way". On stamp shows two covered together with the portal at the exit of the tunnel; is known, however, that the opening has been prepared only one of them, and not the, in which the train, the second is the way together with portal was ready only after 17 years. In addition, the stamp (as in the case of invert photos) confused side: highway, located on the stamp to the right of the tunnel, in fact, located on the left. Racing on the highway mail stagecoach on this mountain pass not cruised, its route passes through the St. Gotthard Pass.
    That's how many mistakes you can fit on a tiny scrap of paper. Said, that the author of the stamp - the artist A. Frayliha, going to be punished. But not behind made the errors, but the only ... for the only behind the only correct part of the stamp: mail stagecoach, although cruised through another mountain pass, drawn correctly, but only because the picture is completely borrowed from another artist, that is, It was a real plagiarism. When they began to deal with errors on the stamp, it was found that A. Fraile largely innocent. It is surprising, but in the archives not found the photos opening of the tunnel. But for some reason in archival a pack of preserved amateur photo official tunnel tests by a special commission 25 february 1906 year, i.e. in the period of completion. On this picture carriages and the locomotive actually walking the "wrong" right way. This violation was made only once in the history of the use of the tunnel, and it was necessary to happen, that this is the moment captured in the picture, which invited the artist to work with. This circumstance greatly mitigates his guilt, but the actual status stamp, of course, does not answer.   http://filatelist.ru  
in the Table of Contents
    31 July 2006 year it became known about the theft of 221 items out the Hermitage (her found auditors of Roskultury). The amount, in which was estimate the damage to museum workers themselves, - 130 million rubles (actual market price of the stolen exhibits at least 20 times greater than declared.). This is a collection of Russian icons and jewelry middle of XIX - early XX century, donated at different times of the emperor Nicholas II.   This is not the only case. One of them was in of march 2001 year, cut from the subframes and taken away a picture of the French impressionist Jerome "Pool in a Harem".
She has not yet been found. It all came down not to the violations, but to sloppiness "some of employees" and the confusion with the storage of exhibits.
    On business of embezzlement, that had lasted several years, was convicted one man - Nikolai Zavadsky. He was sentenced to five years in prison. (54-year-old Nikolai Zavadsky - the husband of the former keeper of the Hermitage Larisa Zavadskaya, who died during the inspection at the Hermitage, and who is suspected of stealing artifacts from the museum).
    In March 2010, the United States, through its ambassador in Moscow, John Beyrle returned to Russia a small silver medallion with the image of Peter I, who was among the 221 exhibits stolen from the Hermitage. The medallion was discovered by Russian investigators on the online auction site and returned with the assistance of the ministry of National Security US.
            So far managed to return 34 of the exhibit, the last of them, the icon of Our Lady of Kazan, (listed as missing rarities under the number 86) was found in October and handed over to the museum on 23 december.       in the Table of Contents
    Images, similar on UFO (unidentified flying objects) in the form, as their in media describe, can be seen on the paintings and frescoes made by artists of different times. Perhaps, the Italians and it was noticed curiosity extraterrestrials unto to the epoch renaissance. You are presented period of time in half a century and 3 paintings of famous Italian masters ("who knew the assignment" of these objects).
How many paintings and other works of art with an interesting plot (UFOs, astronauts, spaceships) in world ??!.       in the Table of Contents
    In France, one of the stamps symbol was the "Sower", which is often called the French "Marianne", because as a model for the drawing was rural girl Mary of the village in the Auvergne. For them it is - the personification of the ideas of the French Revolution. The author was a young Marianne schedule and sculptor Louis Oscar Roty.
His image of Maria in "Marianne-Sower" first appeared on stamps in 1903 year.
    Roti died in 1911, Maria Rago finished his days in poverty in 1930 year, a stamps published again and again, right up 1960 year.
    Stamps seen by millions of people worldwide, but only 10 years after its inception, the old farmer in one of the French towns turned to postal officials with an elementary question: "Where have you seen a Sower scatters grains against the wind?" And then it became clear that the artist made a blunder: waving her hair Sower, undoubtedly, testified, that she sows against the wind. However, behind the stamps have interceded many ordinary people of France. They argued that Marianne scatters not just grain - is a metaphor, a grain refers to the idea of the French Revolution, such ideas and necessary sow the against wind, i.e, contrary of everything ossified, outdated, that is opposed to the new.     A more detailed and full on the website "librusec" www.lib.rus.ec       in the Table of Contents
    Did you know, that the people of XIX century did not really seen the Old Russian painting. Icons were "blackboard", representing the only historical and religious interest. The reason for the invisibility of icons - the technique of their execution. Tempera paint, deposited on primed boards of icons, top coated with drying oil. Drying oil well shows color and keeps the icons off the damage, but, unfortunately, with time darkens. 70-100 , that absolutely hid, located underneath her the image. Then the icons to "made a newer", often awkwardly.
Gradually painting was covered with several layers of varnish and records. In ancient boards appear only silhouettes. It is not surprising that until the middle XIX century, no one believed, that art in Russia before Peter was.
        On the wave of interest in pre-Petrine culture, was create large collections of Morozov, Ostroukhova, where icons were not just monuments olden, but and works of art. The first scientific cleaning of icons was made in 1904. Icons there was light so bright,as new and colorful, which surprised even the experts. The first major exhibition "solved" icon, which caused unprecedented interest, took place in February 1913 and was timed to the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty.     in the Table of Contents